首 页  |  中国禅学  |  禅学三书  |  慈辉论坛  |  佛学论文  |  最新上传  |  文学频道  |  佛缘论坛  |  留言簿   |

 管理登陆        吴言生 创办              图片中心    关于本网     佛教研究所 主办


  • 晋宋时代的禅经译出与禅法传播[114]

  • 有四样东西,可以带给一个家庭[100]

  • 佛教如何看待“爱情”与“欲望[124]

  • 云门宗在舒州地区传承与发展研[100]

  • 为什么说“ 一失人身,万劫不复[112]

  • 心不要随着境界而动[103]

  • 论唐代的讲经仪轨[711]

  • 出家人眼里的爱和情什么样?两[140]

  • 佛学公案:谁是知音?[135]

  • 生命的最高境界[129]

  • 业障重时,念佛有多困难,你知[140]

  • 为什么要对出家师父的法名尊称[133]



  • 本站推荐

    恭迎佛吉祥日·卫塞

    禅理:任何人的苦乐

    一禅一世界,一叶一


       您现在的位置: 佛学研究网 >> E3英文佛教 >> [专题]e3英文佛教 >> 正文


    THE PROBLEMS OF THE "AATYANTIKA" IN KUEI-CHI'S PPHV
     
    [ 作者: Ah-yueh Yeh   来自:期刊原文   已阅:12908   时间:2007-1-17   录入:ningguannan


    ·期刊原文

    THE PROBLEMS OF THE "AATYANTIKA" IN KUEI-CHI'S PPHV

    Prajnaparamita-hrdaya-sutra-vyakhyana
    (般若波罗蜜多心经幽赞 )
    Ah-yueh Yeh
    Chung-Hwa Buddhist Journal
    Chung-Hwa Insitute of Buddhist Studies
    NO.3 April, 1990
    P.381-401


    .

     

                                    P.381

     

                                    Summary

     

            The Praj~naapaaramitaa-hrdaya-suutra( 般若波罗蜜多心

            经 )is not one  of the  Vij~naanavaada's  texts, but

            Kuei-chi  (窥基  )in his PPHV(  般若波罗蜜多心经幽赞

            )explains its meanings with Vij~naanavada's theories

            by means  of not only  borrowing  the theories  from

            LAS( 楞伽经 ), MSA (大乘庄严经论  )and YCBH 瑜伽师地

            论 )etc., but also reconstructing  their theories as

            his new theories.  Of these the "aatyantika" (阿颠底

            伽 )appears  in PPHV as the Fifth Nature implicating

            three probledms, therefore, I explain  in this paper

            these  three problems  as follows:(1) Concering  the

            First Problem of why Kuei-chi omits the "icchantika"

            (一阐提伽 )and "an-icchantika" or "aacchantika (阿阐

            提伽 )in PPHV, I deal  with the theories  of LAS,MAS

            and YCBH for the purpose  of finding  out the reason

            which Kuei-chi  claims that "agotra"  (无种姓 ), the

            Fifth  Nature, contains  three  kinds: "icchantika",

            "anicchantika"  and "atyantika" in his VMSVY [c-k] (

            成唯识论掌中枢要 ).(2) The Second Problem is that if

            Kuei-chi   does   not   support   the  theories   of

            "maahakaru.na-bodhisattva"  (大悲菩萨 ), why does he

            claim in PPHV that "avalokite'svara-bodhisattva" (观

            自在菩萨 )has completed  Enlightment? Regarding this

            problem,   I   deal    with    the    theories    of

            Saddharmapu.n.darika's  Commentary( 法华玄赞 ), PPHV

            and YCBh's Commenetary (瑜伽论记 )for the prupose of

            proving that Kuei-chi permits the theories of

            Mahaakaru.na-bodhisattva.  (3) The Third Problem  is

            that  if  Kuei-chi   holds  that  "agotra"  is  only

            "atyantaagotra"  (毕竟无种姓  ), why does he in PPHV

            not only exlpain that both 8th and 7th vij~nanas are

            good natures, but also select the "buddha-gotra" (佛

            性 )and "tathaagata-garbha"  (如来藏  )etc.  for the

            explanations of the natures of " chien-hsiang-cheng-

            hsing"  (遣相证性  ), one of the Five  Vij~nanavada-

            perceptions (五重唯识观 )? For this problem, I first

            make  a comparative  table  and  then  expain  their

            meanings for

     

     

                                    P.382

     

            the purpose  of understaning  that Kuei-chi  in PPHV

            does   not   hold the  Indian"atyantaaparinirvar.na-

            dharma"   (毕竟无涅盘法 ).

                In CONCLUSION, I  offer  two  keys  to solve the

            above problems: (1) The "atyantika" can connect with

            either "agotra" or 'gotra";  the "atyantikaagatra" (

            具毕竟无种姓  )and "atyantika-gotra"  (具毕竟种姓 ),

            The "aatyantika"  in PPHV has these two meanings.(2)

            The  "  颠  "  of  "aatyantika"(  阿颠底迦  )can  be

            interpreted   as  a  misprint   of  the   "  颠  "of

            "anicchnatika"  (阿阐底迦  ).  Aside from these  two

            keys,  should  it  be  suggested  that  "agotra"  be

            retrieved   as  the  Fifth  Naturs,  which  contains

            "icchantika",   "anicchantika"   and   "aatyantika",

            claimed by Kuei-chi in his VMSVy [c-k]( 枢要 ).

     

            THE PROBLEMS OF THE " AATYANTIKA" IN KUEI-CHI'S PPHV

            (Praj~naapaaramita-hrdaya-suutra-vyakhyaana)

     

     

                Kuei-chi   (窥基   A.D.632-682)  and  his  Great

            Teacher Hsuen-tsang (玄奘 A.D.600-64) are the famous

            founders  of the  Chinese  Vij~naanavaada's  school,

            Fa-hsiang      tzung)    .      The     VMS      [h]

            [vij~naptimatratasiddhi, 成唯识论  ] is an important

            basic  text  of this school, which  introduced  some

            special theories of Vasubandhu (世亲.  A.D. 320-400)

            and  Dharmapaala  (护法  A.D.  530-561)  to  Chinese

            Buddhist  scholars as the new Chinese vij~naanavaada

            1 in the Tang Dynasty, of these the doctrines of the

            three  vehicles  and the "five distinctive  natures"

            (FDN, wu-chung-hsing-peih, 五种性别 )are very famous

            theories.

                The FDN only appears  once in VMS [h] 2, but its

            five names [bodhisattva( 菩萨 ),pratyeka-buddha  (独

            [  缘  ]  觉  ), sraavaka  (声闻  ), anityata(  不定

            ),agotra(  无种性 )] are introduced  by Kuei-chi  in

            his VMSVy [s-k]3 (述记 ), vol.1.  first, and next in

            vol.11, he enumerates the LAS (La.nkavataara-suutra,

            入楞伽经 ) vol.2, Wu-shang-I-chin  (无上依经 )vol.1,

            Suvikraanta-    vikramipariprccha-PP(   善勇猛般若经

            )vol.1., Mahaapraj~naa-paaramita-suutra(  大般若经 )

            vol.593, MSA  (Mahaayaanasuutraannkara, 大乘庄严经论

            ) vol.1.,  and  YCBh   (Yogaacarabhuumi,  瑜伽师地论

            )vol.21.for  the purpose of proving that these texts

            mentioned  the  FDN.  But  he does  not explain  the

            meanings of the FDN, because in his other

     

     

                                    P.383

     

     

            commentary  of VMSVy[c-k](  成唯识论掌中枢要  ),4 he

            has already explicated them in all details.  In them

            we find the Fifth "agotra" (without  lineage, 无种姓

            )  containing (1)   " icchantika " ( 一阐提伽 )  (2)

            "an-icchantika,  or  "aacchantika"(  阿阐提伽  ) and

            (3)"atyantika"( 阿颠底伽,ah-tien-chi-chia).

                Now this "atyantika" appears as the Fifth Nature

            ("gotra", lineage) with the other three  natures  of

            the three vehicles(  三乘 )and one nature "anityata"

            (不定  , undetermined  one), in  his  commentary  of

            PPHS.5  (Praj~naapaaramitaa-hrdaya-suustra, 般若波罗

            蜜多心经),named Pan-jo-po-lo-mito-hsin-chin-yu-tsan,

            (般若波罗蜜多心经赞 ).  These five names of FDN only

            appear as the representotions  of the five different

            persons in practicing the boddhisattva's  path (菩萨

            行 )without  any explanation  of their meanings  and

            characteristics in PPHV.

                PPHS(   心经   ) ,  of   course,  is   not   the

            Vij~naanavaada's  text, but  Kuei-chi  explains  the

            practicing PP (Praj~napaaramita, 般若波罗蜜多 ), the

            Second  "cittauttaapana"6  (第二练磨心  ), with  the

            theories   of  the   vij~naanavaada,  in  which   he

            sometimes  explains  with  his own special  theories

            which  are  different  from  not only  the texts  of

            Tri^m'sikaa, VMS, but also  the YCBh.  If we compare

            these  theories, we will find that this "aatyantika"

            in PPHV has some problems. Therefore, I will attempt

            to explain  in  this  paper  what  the meanings  and

            problems this "aatyantika" has in the PPHV.

     

     

            I. The First Problem of "aatyantika"

            (A) The "agotra" in LAS & MSA"

     

                Why  does   Kuei-chi   omit   "icchantika"   and

            "an-icchantika"  in  the  PPHV? As  concerning  this

            problem,let us study  the theories  of VMSVy  [c-k],

            for the purpose of seeking out why Kuei-chi explains

            that the Fifth Nature, named "agotra" comprises  the

            "icchantika"   an-icchantika"    and   "aatyantika".

                Kuei-chi,  in  his   VMSVy   [c-k]7,  introduces

            various  theories  from some famous  texts, of these

            the  theories  of LAS and MSA, I think, will  be the

            important  avenues  whereby  to work  out the  above

            problem.  Therefore, I select  the main theories  of

            the Fifth  Nature, the "agotra"  in the texts of LAS

            and MSA as follows. the main theories of LAS are:8

            (1) The   one   who   dejects    all   good    roots

                (sarva-ku'salamuulotsarga), not only

     

     

                                    P.384

     

                resists  the bodhisattva-pi.taka  (菩萨藏 ), but

                also dislikes the liberation (mok.sa).  However,

                if he meets the Buddhas, good friends  etc., and

                generates  the bodhicitta  (菩提心 ), he finally

                can attain the nirvaa.na.

            (2) The bodhisattva who, for the beneficence  of all

                the living bings, makes the following  vows from

                the biginningless time.

                     "I will not attain the nirvaana  as long as

                all the living beings do not attain the nirvaa.na."

                     Therefore  He  absolutely  does  not attain

                the nirvaa.na (atyantato na parinirvaati), since

                he understands  that the characteristics  of all

                dharmas    are    originally     in    nirvaa.na

                (aadiparinirv.rtaan  sarvadharmaan  vidita).  In

                this case he is named the bodhisattvecchantika (

                菩萨阐提 ).

                From the above explanations  we understand  that

            the Fifth Nature, "agotra"  in LAS has two different

            "icchantikas" who own the natures to be the Buddhas.

            Therefore,  the  other  meaning   of  "agotra",  the

            "without-buddha-gotra"  is  not  explained  in  LAS.

            Next, the main theories of MSA are:9

                The   dharma   of  without   getting   nirvaa.na

            (aprinirvaa.na-dharma, 无般涅盘法  )is in the  state

            of "agotra" which has two-types:

            (1) The    aparinirvaana-dharma     in    time    10

                (kalaparinirvaa.na-dharma, 时边无般涅盘法  )wich

                again has four kinds;

                (a) du'scaritaikaantika  (一向行恶行, absolutely

                    doing the bad deeds).

                (b) "samucchinnaku'salamuula"  (普断诸善 ([ 白 ]

                    根, utterly destroying the good roots)

                (c) "amok.sabhaagiiya-ku'salamuula"  (无有解脱分

                    [ 善根 ], without the good root of having to

                    do with liberation).

                (d) "hinaku'salamuulas caparipuur.na-sa^mbhaara.h"

                    (善  [  根  ], 少亦无因, the  defeated  good

                    roots  and  unperfect   equipment   for  the

                    Enlightment).

            (2)The   dharma   of  absolutely   without   getting

               nirvaa.na (atyantaaparinirvaa.na-dharma, 毕竟无涅

               盘法 )means  that the one who is absolutely  with

               the "hetu" (cause), by  which  there  is no gotra

               of attaining nirvaa.na.

                Of   the    above   explanations,   the    first

            "kalaparinirvaa.na-dharma" means that the one who is

            temporarily  without "gotra", but, when he meets the

            Buddhas, good   friends   and  good  "pratyaya"   (a

            co-operating  cause), he will regain his "gotra" and

            become a buddha. Therefore, this "kalaparinirvaa.na-

            dharma"  is just the same  as the  two "icchantikas"

            of

     

     

                                    P.385

     

            the   "dejecting    the   good   roots"    and   the

            "bodhisattvecchantika" in LAS as mentioned before.In

            this case the later " a tyantaaparinirvaa.na-dharma"

            has  the  real  meaning  of  "agotra".  This  is why

            Kuei-chi  selects the above theories of LAS and MSA,

            and  claims   that   the  Fifth   Nature   comprises

            three-types of (1) "icchantiaka"  (2) "anicchantika"

            and (3) "aatyantika", which are considered to be the

            new theories of Kuei-chi.

                For these  reasons, Kuei-chi  explains  that the

            "icchantika"   means   the   one  who  desires   the

            "sa^msaara"  (生死轮回  ).  This explanation  is the

            same as that the Fu-sin-lung (佛性论, TTP 31, p.797c

            )said;  and the "an-icchantika"  means  the one  who

            undesires  the nirvaa.na.  From this  meanings,these

            two, the  "icchantika"  and  the "anicchantika"  are

            common  to the other  two: the one who has "breaking

            good roots", and the "mahaakaru.na-bodhisattva".  In

            other words Kuei-chi  selects  the two "icchantikas"

            from  LAS  for  his  first  two  " icchantika "  and

            "anicchantika",   and   he   finally   selects   the

            "atyantaapari nirvaa.na-dharma" from the MSA for his

            third  one, the " aatyantika " which  means that the

            one who is absolutely without getting nirvaa.na.

                And Kuei-chi in his conclusion says that the one

            who is without  the [buddha]gotra, the "agotra", can

            also named the first two names, the "icchantika" and

            the "an-icchantika", who will attian the enlightment

            in a long time;  but the last  one, the "aatyantika"

            can not attain the enlightment. From this statement,

            we  understant   that  Kuei-chi   claims   that  the

            "agotra",  the  Fifth  Nature, has  three  tipes  of

            "icchantika", "anicchantika"  and "aatyantika".  But

            in the same  text, he claims  that  the "icchantika"

            has  three kind types of (1) :breaking good  roots",

            (2) "mahaakaruna", (3) "agotra", which tells us that

            the  "agotra"  becomes  one of the "icchantika"  and

            named  "agotrecchantika"  (无性阐提  ), in which the

            cause  and  result  are  in-complete  in becoming  a

            buddha.11

                Anyway, Kuei-chi selects the theories of LAS and

            MSA and accepts  that the Fifth  Nature  is "agotra"

            or  "icchantika", but  he  coins  the  new  theories

            for claiming that both of "agotra"  and "icchantika"

            separately  have their own three types as meantioned

            before, the first  two types  of them  will  finally

            attain the

            nirvaa.nas,  but  the  only   last   types   of  the

            "aatyantika"   of  "agotra"  and  the  "agotra"   of

            "icchantika"   absolutely   can   not   attain   the

            nirvaa.na. In other words, the only "aatyantika" and

            "agotrec-chantika"  are absolutely  without becoming

            the buddhas.

     

     

     

                                    P.386

     

            (B) The "agotra" in YCBh

     

                Now we come back to the PPHV, in which  Kuei-chi

            mentions  the  "atyantika"  (阿颠底迦  )as the fifth

            Nature without explaining  not only the other two of

            "icchantiaka"  and  "an-icchantika",  but  also  the

            "atyantika"   itself.   Why   does   he   omit   the

            "icchantiaka"  and "an-icchantik"  in this  PPHV? As

            concerning  this  problem, in the  next  step  it is

            better for us to research  the theories  of BSBh = =

            Bodhisattvabhumi (菩萨地 )of YCBh = Yogaacaarabhuumi

            (瑜迦师地论  )to find  out its relation  with  PPHV,

            because   Kuei-chi   borrows   many   theories    of

            bodhisattvacaryaa   (菩萨行   ) from  BSBh  for  the

            explanations    of   Practicing   PP,   the   Second

            "Citta-uttaapana" (第二练磨心 )in PPHV.

                It is a well-known  fact that the various  names

            and theories of "gotras" and "pudgalas"  are broadly

            explicated  in YCBh vols.  21,37, 52, 57, 67 without

            mentioning  the  names  and  theories  of  the  Five

            Natures altogether  in its one place.  But genearlly

            speaking, the theories  of Five Natures  are treated

            in YCBh, 12  therefore, I find  the  four  names  of

            "pudgalas"  connecting  with  three  gotras  and one

            "agotra" in YCBh vol.37 as follows. 13

            (1) "'sraavaka-gotra.h   'sraavaka-yane   (the   one

                possessing  the "'sraavaka"  (listener)'s gotra,

                声闻种姓, in the  vehicle  of 'sraavaka, [should

                be natured as his pudgala]. ( 住声闻种姓, 于声闻

                乘应可成熟补特伽罗 ).

            (2) "pratyeka-buddha-gotra.h   pratyekabuddha-yaane"

                (the   one   possessing   the   "pratyekabuddha"

                (self-enlightened  one) 's gotra  in vehicle  of

                praty-eka-buddha,  [should  be  matured  as  his

                pudgala] (住独觉种姓, 于独觉乘应可成补特伽罗 )

            (3) "Buddhagotra  mahaayane paripacayitavya.h"  (the

                one  possessing   the  Buddha's   gotra  in  the

                mahaayana, should be matured [as his pudgala]  (

                住佛种姓, 于发上乘应可成熟补特伽罗 )

            (4) "agotrastho   'pi   pudgala.h   sugati-gamanaaya

                paripaacayitavyo  bhavati"  (and the pudgala who

                is occupied  with "agotra"  for going  into  the

                good path (sugati, 善趣 ), should be matured [as

                his pudgala] (住无种姓, 于住善趣应成补特伽罗 )

                The above four kinds of pudgalas belong to No.2

            "paripaacya  [pudgala]" (the matured man) of the Six

            "paripaakaa.h", 14 the state of

     

     

                                    P.387

     

            matured  living  bings  (sattva-paripaaka-sthaana) ,

            which is the No.5 state of the Seven Studing  States

            15  in the  "svaparaartha"  (自他利  )'s section  of

            BSBh.  From which Kuei-chi  borrows the theories  of

            bodhisattvacaryaa  (菩萨行  ) in PPHV  for explaning

            the  broad  practices  of the  bodhisattvacaryaa, in

            which   we  find   that   its  many   theories   are

            reconstruted  by Kuei-chi.  For  example, the  seven

            states   are  contracted   into  five  states:  No.5

            "sattvaparipaaka"  is changed  to no.1 state  of the

            five states, and named " so-hua-chu "  ( 所化处, the

            state of the men taught).  For this Kuei-chi  simply

            mentions the following statements. 16

                "The three  vehicles  (三乘 ), undetermined  one

                (anityata,   不定   ) and   the   absolute   one

                (aatyantika,  阿颠底迦  ) ,  should  be  matured

                according to the differences of their "gotras" (

                种姓差别如应成熟 )."

                The above  names  of the Five  Natures  are also

            reconstructed names from the four pudgalas of BSBh (

            菩萨地 ),according  to the Five  Natures  of LAS and

            MSA. That is to say that Kuei-chi put the "anityata"

            between  No.3  17  "buddha-gotra-pudgala"  and  No.4

            "agotrastha-pudgala", In addition he not only chages

            No.4 "agotra"  to "aatyantika", but also takes  away

            the name  of No.3, combines  it with Nos.  1.2.  and

            name "three vehicles"  without any explanation about

            these five natures.

                Now let us see the following statements  of BSBh

            for understanding the meanings of "agotra".

            A."agotra-stha.h  pudgalo  gotre  'sati cittopade'pi

              yatna-samaa'sraye  satyabhavya's  caanuttaraayaa.h

              samyaksa^mbodheh paripuuraye." 18 (When the person

              existing  without  "gotra"  does  not live  in the

              "gotra", he is unable  in the  completion  of  the

              unsurpassed and perfect enlightenment, even though

              he produces intention  and makes the effort as the

              support).

            B."asati tu gotre sarve.na sarva^m sarvathaa  bodher

              apraptir   eva   veditavya"   19  (It  should   be

              understand  that if there  is no gotra, there will

              be always  without  getting  bodhi all entirelly).

                The above  statements  tell us that the "agotra"

            in    BSBh     is    only     the     meaning     of

            "atyantaaparinirvaa.na-dharma"  of MSA  without  the

            meanings of two types of "icchantika"  of LAS.  This

            is  why  Kuei-chi   changes  the  "agotra"  to   the

            aatyantika", since  he  likes  to  accord  with  the

            theories  of YCBh.  But the problem  of why he omits

            the  explanations  of icchamita"  and an-icchantimas

            (the Mahaakaru.na-bodhisattva) in PPHV in not

     

     

                                    P.388

     

            yet resolved.

     

            II. The Second Problem of "aatyantika"

     

                If Kuei-chi forgets the meanings of "icchantika"

            and "an-icchantika" (the Mahaakaru.na-bodhisattva),

            and    does    not   support    the   theories    of

            Bodhisattvecc.hantika  (菩萨阐底  ), why does  he in

            PPHV  claim  that  the "avalokite'svara-bodhisattva"

            has completed Enlightenment as follows? 20

                "The   Avalokite'svara    first   produces   the

                intention  from the ancient time, and then makes

                up the  excellent  mind  in the  "avidya"  shell

                accompanied  with defilements  (sa^mkle'sa).  He

                had abandoned  his wealth  and life  for seeking

                the Buddha-praj~naa  through the highest effort,

                and   finally   he  had   gotten   the   perfect

                Enlightenment.  Therefore, I  should  encourtage

                myself  and do more practices., It means  that I

                should not despite myself and produce the shrunk

                mind."

                The above statement  in the PPHV belongs  to the

            First  "cittauttaapana"  (第一练磨心  ), one  of the

            Three   "citta-uttaapanaas"   (三练磨心   ) ,  whose

            technical  terms  are borrowed  by Kuei-chi  from MS

            Mahaayaanasa^mgraha  (摄大乘论  ),21 but he also has

            reconstructed  its theories  in the PPHV.  Therefore

            the "avalokite'svara-bodhisattva" in the above First

            "citta-uttaapana"  represents  not  only  the living

            being  (有情众生  )mentioning  in MS, but  also  the

            "purusa-[damya-saarathi]"  ([ 调御丈夫  ])mentioning

            in    VMSVy    [s-k]22.    It   means    that    the

            "avalokite'svara-bodhisattva  not  only  has already

            attained   the   perfect   enlightenment    as   the

            "puru.sa-damya-saarathi", one  of  the  Ten  Buddha'

            Synonyms, 23 but  also  always  lives  in this  evil

            world  to carry  out the welfare  works  for all the

            living beings by the power of his vow stemming  from

            his great compassion.  These theories  are mentioned

            in his commentary of Saddharma-p.u.n.dariikaa-suutra

            (法华玄赞 ), 24 in which Samantabhadra-[bodhisattva]

            (普贤  [ 菩萨 ])also  is mentioned.  And  the  other

            famous     Mu~nju'srii-bodhisattva   (文殊菩萨   )'s

            theories  are  introduced   in  Tun-lun  (遁伦  ) 's

            commentary of YCBh (瑜伽论记 ).25

                Anyway   according to the theories  of LAS,  the

            above    "avalokite'svara",   "Samantabhadra"    and

            "Mu~nju'sri" can be called the

     

     

                                    P.389

     

            same  name "Bodhisattvecchantika"  (菩萨阐提  )26 or

            "mahaakaru.na-bodhisattva"or"Mahaa-karu.necchantika"

            (大悲阐提  )27 named  by Kuei-chi.  In this case, we

            can call  that the "Avalokite'svara-bodhisattva"  is

            the "Mahaakaru.na-bodhisattva" (大悲阐提 ).  But can

            we  say  that   this   "Avalokite'svara-bodhisattva"

            belongs  to the  Fifth  Nature, the  "aatyantika"? I

            think, not only Kuei-chi, but also  we will say "No"

            for  its  answer, because  Kuei-chi  in VMSVy  [c-k]

            claims  that  the  Fifth  Nature,  the  "agotra"  or

            "icchantika"  has  its  own  three  kind-natures, in

            which  the  "Mahaakaru.necchantika"  and "atyantika"

            are  involved.  Therefore, it can be said  that  the

            only "maha-karu.na-bodhisattva"  does not belong  to

            "aatyantika", and only  "aatyantika"  also  can  not

            represent  the  Fifth  Nature, as according  to  the

            theories of Kuei-chi's VMSVy [c-k].

     

            III. The Third Problem of "aatyantika"

     

                If Kuei-chi holds that the "agotra"  is only the

            "aatyantika"(阿颠底迦)or the"pi-ching-wu-chung-hsing"

            (毕竟无种姓, "atyantagotra", or "aatyantikaagotra"),

            why does he in PPHV Not only explains  that the both

            Eighth  Vij~naana  and  Seventh  Vij~naana  are good

            natures,  but   also   selects   the   theories   of

            "tathagata-garbha" (如来藏 )and "Buddha-gotra" (佛性

            )for the explanation  of the nature  of "Chien-hsing

            cheng-hsing"   (遣相证性   ) ,  one   of  the   Five

            Vij~naanavaada-perceptions (五重唯识观 )?

                As concerning  the above problem, let us see the

            following    table    which   contains    Kuei-chi's

            explanations  of both  vij~naanas.  (Please  see the

            next paper.

            The new important  theories  in above  table  are as

            follows:

            (1) Both "citta" (心 )= Eighth vij~naana and "manas"

                (意 )= Seventh vij~naana are possessing the good

                characters  or natures, which are different from

                the  indeterminate  (avyak.rta,  无记  ) natures

                mentioning in Tri^m'sikaa and VMS etc. 28

            (2) Both vij~nanas, though separately  having  their

                won three vij~naanas in three states, have close

                relationship.

            (3) The "aadaanavij~naana"  in the thired  state  is

                not only higher  and longer  in activities  than

                "aalayavij~naana"  and  "vipaakavij~naana",  but

                also  the  object  of the "manas"  in the  third

                state, which is different  from the impure  mind

                (kli.s.ta-manas, 染污意 )mentioning in the texts

                of

     

     

                                    P.390

     

            
     

                                    P.391

     

            MSVy[v-p], 29 转识论 translated by Paramaartha.

                At any rate Kuei-chi  claims  that  both  Eighth

            Vij~naana  an  Seventh  Vij~naana  in the  state  of

            supreme  truth  (paramaartha-satya, 胜义谛 )are good

            and pure natures.  This is why Kuei-chi  selects the

            theories  of the pure mind  "suunyataa", "tathataa",

            "tathaagata-garbha." and "buddha-gotra" etc. for the

            explanation  of  the  nature  of "chien-hsiang-chen-

            hsing"  (遣相证性 ), one of the Five vij~naanavaada-

            perceptions(  五重唯识观  ) .In  this  case,  it  is

            necessary  to study the meanings  of "gotra" because

            it has connection with "agotra".

                It is a well-known fact that the dictionaries of

            Sanskrit  tell  us that  "gotra"  has  such  various

            meanings  of  "protection   for  cows",  "cow-shed",

            "family",  "race",  "lineage",  "gesns",    "basis",

            "species", "cause"  and "seed" etc.30  Among them we

            find the term "gotra-bhuu" (man of lineage) is first

            introduced in the Early buddhist Canon. The "gotraa"

            has the same meanings of "va^m'sa" (系统 )and "kula"

            (家  ),  and  then  this  "gotra"  is  used  as  the

            "aaryagotra"   (圣人家系  ) in  the  general  Indian

            society, but in the Mahaayaana  Buddhism, it is used

            as "gotrastha", "gotra-bhuumi" or "tathaagata-gotra"

            mentioned  by  Prof.  Takasaki  Jikido.31

                Generally  speaking  this "gotra" is treated  in

            almost all of the mahaayaana-suutras32  with various

            meanings.  Kuei-chi seems to respect the theories of

            YCBh, from  which  he quotes  the  famous  two  kind

            gotras  of  "prak.rtistha"  (being  in the  original

            state,  本性住  )and  "samudaaniita"  (acquired,  or

            brought together [by perfuming], 习所成 )in PPHV for

            explaining   that   the  one  who  owns  these   two

            mahaayaana  "gotras"can  practice the five staged of

            the Yogaacaara-vij~naanavaada's path.33

                These two famous "gotras"  are already quoted in

            VMS.  If we compare  the explanations  of VMS34 with

            VMSVy [s-k]  and PPHV, we can find that Kuei-Chi  in

            PPHV explains the "prak.rtistha-gotra" (本性住种性 )

            to mean that the "prak.rti"  (本性 )dwelling  in the

            Muulavij~naana ( 位本识  ) can produce the undefiled

            [dharma] (无漏[法]).In other  words  this "undefiled

            [dharma]  (无漏  [  法  ]) .  In  other  words  this

            "undefiled  [dharma]  (无漏  [ 法 ] is  produced  by

            "prakrti",  the  undefiled  bija  ( 无漏种  ), which

            dwells in the Muulavij~naana  (  住本识 [ 第八识 ]).

            This explanation  is different from that explanation

            of " 依附本识 " (depending on the Muula-vij~naana  )

            meantioned in VMS. Therefore Kuichi in his VMSVy

            [s-k]  only  explains  that " 无漏种无始自成  " (the

                   undefiled biija has completed itself from the

                   beginningless-time) without commen-

     

     

                                    P.392

     

            ting on the " 依附本识 ", But in his explanations of

            the "samudaaniita-gotra" (习所成种性 ), we find " 令

            无漏旧种增长 " (to cause the old undefiled  biija to

            grow). If the old undefiled biija of them means both

            the primary  undefiled  biija  of the "prak.rtistha"

            and    secondary    underfiled    biija    of    the

            "samudaaniita",  then  it  may  be  said   the  good

            theories  for the people to be buddhas, because they

            can  naturally   possess  the  pure  biija,  and  in

            addition they always practice the bodhisattva's path

            which causes their pure biijas to grow.  This is why

            the  "gotra"   is  called   "biija",  "dhaatu"   and

            "prakrti" in BSbh and 'Sraavaka-bhuumi. 35

                In  this  case, the  opposite  name  of "agotra"

            means   "without-bija",  or   without-dhatu"   etc.,

            therefore  the people  live in "agotra"  means  that

            they  absolutly   can  not  become  buddhas.   These

            "agotra"'s  theories  of Indian vij~naanavaada  were

            not easily accepted  by the Chinese buddhist  during

            the  Tang  Dynasty.  It  is a well-known  fact  that

            before   Hsuen-tsang   (玄奘  ) went  to  India  for

            researching Buddhsim, there were many buddhist texts

            holding    the    theories    of   the   "ekayaana",

            " buddha-dhaatu ( or Gotra ) " (佛 性), "tathaagata-

            garbha"  (如来藏 ), "amala-vij~naana"  (阿摩罗识  ),

            such  as Mahaaparinirva.na-suutra  (大般涅盘经  )and

            saddhar-mapu.ndariika-suutra  (  妙法莲华经    )   ,

            Avata^msaka-suutra (华严经 )Ta-cheng-chi-hsin-lun  (

            大乘起信论 )etc are translated and studied by Indian

            and  Chinese  buddhist  scholars.  Therefore,  after

            Hsuen-tsang  had completed his studies in India, and

            before he returned to China, he wished to delete the

            theory  of "agotra"  from  MAS  etc., but  his Great

            Teach  'Silabhadra  ( 戒贤, A.D.529-645 ) would  not

            permit this.  This episode was mentioned by Tun-lun(

            遁伦 )in his commentary of YCBH.36

                From the above statements,I think that  not only

            Hsuen-tsang, but also Kuei-chi, the Chinese Buddhist

            Scholars, understand  that Chinese buddhists wish to

            become  the  buddhas,  and  like  to  research   the

            buddhist suutras or 'saastras which teach the people

            how to become  the Buddhas.  Therefore, Kuei-chi  in

            PPHV  has  his  special  theories  of not  noly  the

            Avalokite'svara-bodhisattva    appearing    as   the

            Mahaakaru.na-bodhisattva,  but  also   both   Eighth

            Vij~naana  and  Seventh  Vij~naana  possessing  good

            natures,  which   are  different   from   YCBh   and

            Tri^m'sika  etc.  For these reasons, I would like to

            say  that  it is a problem  for Kuei-ch  ino put the

            "atyantika"  as the Fifth Nature in PPH stead of the

            Fourth Pudgala "agotra" in YCBh.

     

     

                                    P.393

     

            IV Conclusion

     

                The PPH (心经 )is not the Vij~naanakaana's text,

            but Kuei-chi in his PPHV explains  its meanings with

            the Vij~naanavaada's  theories by means of borrowing

            the  theories   from  YCBh  and  MSA  et.,  He  also

            reconstructs  their theories as his new theories, in

            which the "aatyantika"  appesrs  in PPHVas the Fifth

            Nature implicating three problems.

                As concering  the First Prolem  of why" Kuei-chi

            omits the "icchantika" and "an-icchantid,LA in PPHV,

            I deal with the theories of "agotra"  in LAS and MSA

            for the purpose  of proving  that Kuei-chei  selects

            not  only  the two  "icchantikas"  of LAS  for  this

            "icchantika"   and  "anicchantika",  but  also   the

            "atyntaaparinirvaa.na-dharma"  (毕竟无涅盘法 )of MSA

            for his "aatyantika", the Fifth  Nature.Although  he

            selects the above three to make his new theories  of

            "agotra",   he   on   the   other   hand,   in   his

            VMSVY[c-k]mentions  that "icchantiio"  als has three

            kinds   of   (1)   "breaking    good   roots"    (2)

            "Mahaakaru.necchantika" (大悲阐提 )and (3) "agotra",

            of these  the  first  two will  finally  attain  the

            nirvaa.na,  but  only  the  third  "aattyantika"  of

            "agotra" or "agotra" of "icchantika"  absolutely can

            not attain nirvaana.

                Because  of the "aatyantika", the Fares  Nature,

            and the other four natures  (three vehicles  and one

            "anityata") appearing in PPHV have connections  with

            YCBH, therefore  I deal  with  the theories of  four

            "gotras'  in the BSBh, the YCBH  VOL.37.  Which  are

            reconstructed  by Kuei-chi, in which I find that, in

            PPHV, not  only  the "anityata"  is an adittion, but

            also   the  "aatyantika"   is  a  substitution   for

            "agotra",the true meaning of "atyantaaparinirvaa.na-

            dharma".  Anyway  the problem of why Kuei-chi  omits

            the other two "icchantikas"(impling the Mahaakaruna-

            bodhisattva) in PPHV is not yet resolvd.

                The Sekand problem is that, if Kuei-chi does not

            support the theories  of "Mahaakaru.na-bodhisattva",

            why     does     he    claim   in   PPHV        that

            "Avalokite'svara-bodhisattva"      has     completed

            Enlightenment? Regarding  this problem, I deal  with

            the   theories   of  Mahaakaru.na-bodhisattvas,  the

            Avalokite'svara, Samantabhadra  and  Munju'si   from

            PPHV and Saddharmapu.ndariika's commentary (法华玄赞

            )etc....Therefore  it can be said that Kuei-chi  has

            the theories of "mahaakaru.na-bodhisattva".  In this

     

     

                                    P.394

     

            case, the only  "mahaakaruna-bodhi-satttr"a may  not

            belong  to the  "aatyantika", and  only " atyantika"

            also cannot represent the fifth Nature, the "agotra"

            of "icchantika".

                The  Third  Problem  is that, if Kuei-chi  holds

            that "agotra" is only the "atyantaagotra"  (毕竟无种

            姓 ), why does  he in PPHV, not  only  explain  that

            both  8th and 7th vij~naanas  are good  natures, but

            also      select      the     "buddhagotra"      and

            "tathaagata-garbha"  for  the  explantions   of  the

            nature of "chien-hsiang-cheng-hsing" (遣相证性) ? To

            this problem, I frist  make a comparative  table for

            undersanding   that  both  8th  Vij~naanas   and 7th

            Vij~naana have good natures in PPHV.

                Next compare  the meanings  of two famous gotras

            of  "prakrtistha"  and  "samudaaniita",  quoted from

            YCBH  in the  texts  of PPHV, VMS, and  VMSVy.  From

            which I find that Kuei-chi  in PPHV permits the pure

            biija of "prak.rtistha"  to dwell in muulavij~naana.

            And this theory, perhaps, can prove tha Kuei-chi  in

            PPHV      does      not     hold      the     Indian

            "atyantaaparinirvaa.na-dharma",  therefore   I would

            consider   it  a  problem  for  Kuei-chi   puts  the

            "aatyantika" as the Fifth Nature in PPHV.

                In  the  end  of  this conclution, I  offer  the

            following  two  keys  for  us  to  solve  the  above

            problems:

            (1) The"aatyantika"can connect with either  "agotra"

                or "gotra".  The first term "aatyantikaagotra" (

                毕竟无种姓  ) ,  representing   the third   name

                "aatyantika"  of  the  three  "icchantikas"   or

                "agotras", means that the one who absolutely has

                no  nature  to  be  a  Buddha;  the latter  term

                "aatyantika-gotra" (毕竟种姓 ), representing the

                second name "an-icchantika" (or Mahaakaru.necch-

                antika,   大悲阐提   )  of  three " agotras " or

                "icchantikas", means that the one who absolutely

                has  nature  to   be  a   Buddha. Therefore, the

                "aatyantika" in the PPHV has above two meanings.

            (2) The " 颠 " of " aatyantika " ( 阿颠底迦 ) can be

                interpreted  as  a  misprint  of the "  阐  " of

                "an-icchantika" (阿阐提迦 ), because both the "(

                阿颠底迦 )" and " 阿阐提迦 " belong to the Fifth

                Nature  of FND in VMSVy  [c-k] (枢要), the later

                term " 阿阐提迦 ", especially not only"means the

                Mahaakaru.nabodhisattva,   but  also  represents

                the Avalokite'svara-bodhisattva (观自在菩萨)  in

                PPHV.

                Aside   from  these  two  keys,  should   it  be

                suggested  that the "agotra" be retrieved as the

                Fifth  nature, I, of course, would also   accept

                this suggestion, because  the "agotra"  contains

                "icchantika","an-icchantikahicl and "aatyantika",

                caimed  by Kuei-chi in his VMSVY [c-k].

     

     

                                    P.395

     

                (This  pape was read at the Ninth Conference  of

            the International  Association  of buddhist Studies,

            The National  Central  Library, Taipei, Republic  of

            China, July 26-28, 1989).

     

                                    NOTES

     

            1. The theories of Four Aspects (四分说); the  Three

               Vehicles and Five Dstinctive  Natures( 三性, 五种

               分别 );  the Theories of Eight Vij~naanas(八识说)

               ); the Three Categories's Objects (三类境 );  the

               Five Vij~naanavada's  Perceptions  (五重唯识观).

               The above theories are consicered  the  important

               Chinese Vij~naanavadas.

            2. VMS  [h]  Vij~naptimaatrataasiddhi   成唯识论  ),

               TTP, 31, p.8a-b.

            3. VMSVy  [s] (成唯识论述记  ), TTP, fpp.2  230a, Of

               them  the theories  of LAS, MAS  and YCBh, I will

               explain  in the pp.3-7  of this paper.  The other

               texts  are: (1) 无上依经  (TTP.16, pp.470b, 471b)

               mentions  the Four Persons (icchantika, tiirthaka

               (外道  ) ,  'sraavaka,  pratyekabuddha)  and  the

               bodhisattva who possesses the supreme quality and

               practices  the Mahaayana.(2) Mahaa-PP  (大般若  )

               vol.  593(  TTP,  7,  p.1066a-b),  in  which  the

               "agotra"  is  omitted.   These  passage  of  Four

               Persons are quoted by Kuei-chi in his VMSVy[c-k](

               成唯识论掌中枢要, TTP,.43 p.610b), I-lin-chang  (

               义林章, TTP, 45, p.264c) and Fa-fua-shin-tsan (法

               华玄赞,   TTP,   34,    p.656b-c    )   .     (3)

               Suvikraanta-vikrami-parip.rccha-PP(SVPPP,  善勇猛

               般若经, or 2,500 颂般若经 )ed. By Hikata,Ryusho (

               千舄龙祥  ), Committee  of Commemoration  Program

               for Dr.Hikata's  Retirement  from  Professorship,

               Kiushu University, Japan, 1958, pp.4-5. According

               to the theory of Dr.  Hikata, this sanskrit  text

               of SVPPP are corresponding to the Vols., 593-600(

               第 16  会 )  of Mahaa-pp ( TTP, 7, pp.1065-1110).

               Therefore  I select the passages of Four  Persons

               from the above two text as follows:

            (A) "ye satvkaa niyataa.h  'sravakayaane bhavi.syanti

               te  'sruutvaa   k.sipram   anaasravaam   bhuumi^m

               saaksaatkarisyanti." (若有情类于声闻乘性决定者闻

               此法已速能证得无漏地 ).

            (B) "ye pratyekabuddhayaane  niyataa bhavi.syanti,te

                ksipra^m pratyeka-buddhayaanena  niryaa.syanti."

                (若有情类于独觉乘性决定者, [ 闻此法已 ] 速依自乘

                出离 ).

            (C) "ye nuttaraa^m samyaksambodhi^m  samprasthitaas,

                te     k.sipram    anuttaraa^m   samyaksambodhim

                abhisambhotsyante."  ( 若有情类无上 [ 乘性决定 ]

                者, [ 闻此法已 ]  速证无上正等菩提) ( 据上述梵文

                是: 趣于无上正觉者 )

            (D) "ye caanavakraanta-samyaktva-niyaama  antiyataas

                tis.rsu bhuumi.su, te'srutva' nut-

     

     

                                    P.396

     

                taraayam samyaksambodhau cittam utpaadayisyanti."

                (若有情类虽未入正性离生,而于 [三乘]不定者,闻此法

                己皆发正等觉心 ")

                     From the above camparisions, we  find  that

               there is no "gotra"(  性 )in SVPPP, the "sattvas"

               (有情类 )in (B), (C), (D) and the "'srutvaa " (闻

               [  此法已  ])in  (B),  (C)  are  omitted  in  the

               sanskrit  text.   And  in  (C)  the  "ye'nuttaram

               samyaksambodhi^m samprasthitas" mean 趣于无上正等

               菩提者  ", and  in (D) the  "tr.i.s.r.su  bhumisu

               means" 于三地 ". pl1,

            4. VMSVy [c-k],( 枢要 )TTP,43,pp.  610-611, Fukaura,

               Seibun  ( 深浦正文  ):  [  唯识学研究] 永田文昌堂

               Kyoto, 1954, Vol.2. PP.634-646.

            5. PPHV (心经幽赞 ), TTP, 33, p.527c. Pesase see the

               Appendix of this paper.

            6. Kuei-chi  explains three "citta-uttaapanas" (三练

               磨心 ) ,  in PPHV,  of which  the Second " citta-

               uttaapana"(   第二练磨心  )  the  very  important

               bodhisattvacaryaa  (菩萨行  )of PP are  mentioned

               for  the  explanations  of  Practicing  PP in the

               PPHV.  Please see my articles: " 般若波罗磨多心经

               幽赞三练磨心    "   Indian    and

               buddhist Studies (Indogaku bukkyogaku-kenkyu.  印

               度学佛教学研究  ),  Tokyo, 1989,  vol.  37,  No.2

               pp.806-813 and " 如何成佛一以窥基的三练磨心为中心

               ]- 『方东美先生的哲学』国际方东美哲学研讨会执行委

               员会、  幼狮公司、  台北、  民国78年7 月 pp. 338,

               343....355

            7. VMSVY  [c-k](  枢要  ), TTP, 43, pp.610 , and  in

               p.612, Kuei-chi  quotes ten statements  from five

               texts (1)" 涅盘经 " = TTP.12.pp431b, 518a, 554a-b

               569a, 574b-c, 580b.(2).  " 菩萨地持经 " or " 菩萨

               善戒经 "-- TTP, 30 pp.88a, 962c. (3) " 胜鬘经 " =

               TTP, 12.  P218b.  (4) " 大乘庄严经论 " = TTP, 31.

               P595a.  (5)" 金刚般若论  " = TTP, 25,p.794b-c) to

               prove that there are the theories  of "agota"  in

               those texts.  cf.Fukihara, Siosin (富贵原章信  ):

               [ 中国日本, 佛性思想史 ]Kokusio Kankokai ( 国书刊

               行会 ), Tokyo, 1988, pp. 184-191

            8. LAS = La~nkaavatara-suutra, ed. By Bunyiu Nanjio,

               Otani  Univ.   (大谷大学  ) Koyto,  1956,  second

               edition.  PP 16: (1) LAS [c-b]  (入楞伽经十一卷本

               ) tran.  By  Bodhiruci  (菩提流支  )  p.527b  (2)

               LAS[c-g] 楞伽阿跋多罗宝经 ) tran.  By Guna-bhadra

               (求那跋陀罗  ) p.486(3) LAS  [c-s]  (大乘入楞伽经

               )tran.  by  Siksaananda(  实叉难陀  )p.597c.  One

               Japanese  text  is [ 梵文和译: 入楞伽经  ]tran.by

               Yasui,  Kosai  (安井广济  ) Fozuokan  (  波艺  ])

               Kyoto, 1976.pp59-60.

            9. MSA = Mahaayanasutrala.nkaara, edite par sylvain

               levi (Bibiotheque  de Ecole des Hautes Etudes, t

               159), Paris 1907 pp.12-13 MSA[c-p] ( 大乘庄严经论

               )tran.  by Prabhaakarmita  ( 波罗颇迦罗蜜多 )TTP.

               31, p.595a. Kue-chi

     

     

                                    P.397

     

               only  summarizes  the main theories of LAS in his

               VMSVy [c-k].  Uihakujiu (宇井伯寿 ); 大乘庄严经论

               研究 lwonami (岩波 )Tokyo, 1961, p.78

            10. " kaalaaap arinirvana-dharma", to which Kuei-chi

               in his VMSVy [c-k] p.610 meantions:[ 此中时边广云

               暂时, 梵云涅迦罗阿波利昵缚喃达磨, 涅者暂也  ]. Of

               which  the  [  暂 ](temporary), its  sanskrit  is

               "alpa" or "acira" cf. DES = Dectionary of English

               and Sanskrit. ed. By M.  Monier Williams, Motilal

               Banarsidass, Delhi, 1964, second  ed. p. 797, But

               Kuei-chi  says:[ 涅者暂也 ], of which [ 涅 ](nir)

               does not mean the "temporary". Fukihara 富贵原 in

               his 中国日本佛性思想史, p. 189  explains that  恒

               (tat 暂 )  etc. The other three (b) (c) and (d)'s

               Chinese translations are according to MAS [c-p]

            11. VMSVy[c-k]  TTP  43,  p.611a, in which  Kuei-chi

                explains:

               (1) "Mahaaaprunecchantika"  is that in which  the

                   cause  is  complete, but  its  result  is not

                   complete (因成果不成谓大悲阐提 )

               (2) "Sagotra-ku'salamuulotsargecchantika" is that

                   in  which  the result  is  complate, but  its

                   cause is not complete (果成因不成, 谓有性断善

                   阐提 )

               (3) "agotrecchantika,  nityadviyaana" are that in

                   which  both  causes   and   results  are  not

                   complete (因果俱不成谓无性阐提二乘定性)

               (4) "Abhiamkabuddha"     who  possesses       the

                   samaropita-mahaapraj~naa and ku'salamuuaanut-

                   sarga  is  that  in  which  both  cause   and

                   result are complete.(  因果俱成,谓大智增上,不

                   断善根而成佛者 )

            12. cf. Fuawra, Seibun (深浦正文): [唯识学研究] vo.2

                永田文昌堂 Kyoto, 1954, p.636  VMSVy [s-k] VMSVy

                [c-k] TTP 43, PP.304, 610

            13. Yogaacaeca-bhuumi  (瑜伽师地论, 玄奘译 100 卷 ),

                from its vols.35-50 are named Bodhisattva-bhuumi

                section  (菩萨地品 ).

                BSBh =bodhisattvabhumi,( being the XVth  Section

                of   Asangapada's   Yogacaarabhuumi ).  Ed.   By

                Nalinaksha Dutt, K.P.

                Jayaswal  Research Institute, Patnapr  66.  P.55

                BSBh [c-h] TTP 30, p.496c

            14. BSBh   p55  "paripaaka.h   samaasatah,   sadbhir

                aakarair veditavyah svabhavato' pi.." BSBh [c-h]

                TTP 30  p.496b  ( 当知成熟略有六种:(一) 成熟自性

                (2) 所成熟补特伽罗 (3) 成熟差别 (4) 成熟方便 (5)

                能成熟补特伽罗  (6) 已成熟补特伽罗

            15. BSBh,  p.15  "sapta-sthaanaani---, (1) svaartha,

                (2) parartha, (3) tattvaartha, (4) prabhava, (5)

                sattvaparipaaka,(6)aatmano buddhadharma-paripaaka,

                (7) anuttara ca samyaksa^mbodhah.

                BSBh [c-h] TTP 30  p.482b 七学处 (1) 自利处  (2)

                利他处  (3)  真实义处 (4)  威力处 (5) 成熟有情处

                (6) 成熟自佛法处 (7).无上正等菩提处 . Please see

                the Appendix of this paper.

     

     

                                    P.398

     

            16. PPHV TTP 33, p.527c

            17. MPP = Mahaapraj~naaparamita-suutra  ( 大般若经 )

                TTP 7 p.1066, in  which  the  name  of   No.3 is

                named anuttara-yaana-gotra ( 无上乘性 ) which has

                the same meaning of "buddha-gotra"; the name of

                No.4 "anityata" (不定 )also appears in MMP.

            18. BSBh p.1  L.16-18 BSBh [c-h] TTp30,  p.478c

            19. BSBh p7. L.23-24 BSBh [c-h] TTP 30, p.480b

            20. PPHV TTP 33, p.524b [ 彼观自在, 昔初发意, 具诸烦

                恼, 于无明壳, 建立胜心, 舍身命财, 求佛智慧, 兴大

                勇猛, 已成等觉, 我亦应尔, 励已增修, 不应自轻, 而

                生退屈 ]

            21. MS  [c-h1, (摄大乘论  )TTP  31, p.142a.  Sasaki,

                Getzshio (佐佐木月樵 );  汉译四本对照摄大乘论  ]

                日本佛书刊行会 Tokyo 昭和 34, p.54

            22. VMSVY.[c-k] TTP43, p.564b 彼既丈夫, 我亦尔, 不应

                自轻而退屈....

            23. The Ten Buddha'Synonyms are : (1) Tathaagata (如

                来 ),(2)arhat( 阿罗汉 ),(3) samyaksa^mbuddha (正

                遍知), (4) vidyaa-carana-sa^mpanna (明行足), (5)

               sugata (善逝 ), (6) lokavid (世间解),(7) anuttara

               (无上师 ),(8) puru.sadamya-sarathi  ( 调御丈夫 ),

               (9) 'Saast.r( 天人师),(10)buddha-bhagavat (佛世尊

               )cf.Mogitzuki, (望月 ).  佛教大辞典) vol.5,Tokyo,

               1936, p.4437, [  杂阿含经  ],vol.2, TTP 2, p.141c

               Okihara,  unrai(  荻原云来  )  汉译对照梵和大辞典

               Suzuki  Foundation  (铃木学术财团  ),Tokyo  1979,

               p.796.The  statements  of MS, VMSVy [s-k] , VMSVy

               [c-k] and PPHV are mentioned im my article 般若波

               罗蜜多心经幽赞三练磨心 Journal of

               Indian and Buddhist Studies (Indogaku, Bukhyogaku

               Kenkyu,   印度学佛教学研究   )   vol.37    Tokyo,

               1989,pp.213-4.

            24. Fa-fua-shin-tsan (法华玄赞 ),TTP 34,P. 848c 观音

                久已成佛, 不舍菩萨行, 故示为菩萨,which is quoted

                in 成唯识论本文抄 TTP 65, p.415b

                The statements of Samanbhadra are: 验此普贤,久己

                成佛, 示现为菩萨 TTP 34, p.852c.  cf. 楠渟澄: 日

                本唯识思想研究一大悲阐提成, 不成说展开 -----

                山崎教授定年纪念 : 唯识思想研究 pp. 22-32 百华

                苑出版Kyoto, 1987

            25. YCBHVy[c-k] (瑜伽论记) TTP, 42, p.615a

            26. LAS, p-66, LAS [c-g] TTP, 16, p.487c,LAS [c-b],

                p.527b, LAS [c-s], p.597c

            27. VMSVy en-k] TTP 43, pp.610-611, Plese  see  note

                11 of this paper.

            28. Tri^m'sika, pp.13,23,24, VMS TTP31,  pp.7, 9, 60

            29. VMSVy [v-p] (摄大乘论识  ) TTP 31, p.158  转识论

                TTP 31.pp. 61c, 62a

            30. SED  = Sanskrit-English  Dictionary, ed.  By Sir

                Monier Monier-williams, Oxfort, 1960 p.364.

     

     

     

                                    P.399

     

                Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar and dictionary,

                ed. by   F.Edgerton, Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi,

                1970, p.216

            31. Takasaki Jikido (高崎直道): 如来藏思想欢形成,

                春秋社, Tokyo, pp.751-4.  And "An Introduction

                to  Buddhism", translated by Rolf W.Giebel. The

                Toho Gakkai, Tokyo, p.232.

            32. Please see the Table [2] [如来藏说关系诸概念展开

                表 ] in Takasaki's book: 如来藏思想形成  p.761

            33. PPHV TTP.33, p.525a  BSBh p.2 L.4-7  YCBh TTP 30

                p.478

            34. (A) VMS TTP31, p.48b, (b)  VMSVy  [s-k] TTP  43,

                p.565a, (c) PPHV, TTP 33 p.525a

                (A) 无始来依附本识, 法尔所得无漏法因

                (B) 未闻正法, 但无漏种无始自成, 不会重习令其增长

                    名本种姓, 性者体也, 姓者类也

                (C) 本性住种姓,谓住本识,能生无漏,本性功能

                cf. Fukawa依(深浦) :[唯识学研究]

                Vo.2 PP. 658-659.

            35. BSBh   p.2   L.8-9  BSBh  [c-h]  TTP 30   p.478c

                'Sraavakabhuumi  [c-h]  声闻地  TTP 30.  P.395c.

                Analysis  of  the  'Sravakabhuumi Manuscrpt,  by

                Alex  Wayman  University of  California a Press,

                Berkeley, 1961 p.59

            36. YCBhVY [c-t] =瑜伽论记 TTP 42. P.615 a-b

     

     

     

                                    P.400


                                    p.401

     

     

            提要

     

                「心经」虽不是唯识论书之一,但是窥基在「心经幽赞

            」中,不但引用「瑜伽师地论」及「大乘庄严经论」等唯识

            学说来解释,又改造其学说为他的新学说,其中「阿颠底迦

            」当做五种姓别的第五,可认为含有三种问题.因此本论文

            如下说明其三问题。关于第一问题 -- 窥基在「心经幽赞」

            为何省略「一阐提迦」及「阿阐底迦」 (大悲菩提阐) ? 为

            此引述「楞伽经」,「大乘庄严经论」及「瑜伽师地论」的

            学说,以便找出窥基在「成唯识论掌中枢要」中主张第五「

            无种姓」含有三种 (一阐提迦、阿阐提迦、阿颠底迦 )的来

            源。关于第二问题 -- 如果窥基不支持大悲菩萨阐提,为何

            他在「心经幽赞」主张观自在菩萨已成等觉?为此再引用「

            法华玄赞」及「瑜伽论记」的学说,而证明窥基有承认大悲

            菩萨。关于第三问题 -- 如果窥基坚持「无种姓」唯是「阿

            颠底迦 (毕竟 )无种姓」,为何他在「心经幽赞」主张第八

            识与第七识是善性,又选择佛性与如来藏等来解释五重唯识

            中的第五遣相证性? 为此做比较表加以解释等。而了解窥基

            于「心经幽赞」中,没有接收「毕竟无涅盘法」。在结论上

            ,作者提供两想法为解决问题的要键: (1) 「心经幽赞」中

            的「阿颠底迦」含有两种 "aatyantikagotra"  ( 毕竟无种

            姓 )  与 "aatyantikagotra"( 毕竟种姓 )的意思。(2) 「

            阿颠底 迦」的颠」是「阿阐底迦」的「阐」的错字。 除了

            以上两种以外,也可主张「无种姓」应恢复为第五种姓,因

            为窥基在 「述记」中主张它含有三种「一阐提迦、 阿阐提

            迦、阿颠底迦」。


     

     【关闭窗口
    相关文章:
  • 心经的效用[90]

  • 心经中,人人都会背的一句精华,暗藏了人生大智慧![248]

  • 心经中暗藏的智慧密码,一定要知道[358]

  • 学佛人必读的10部经典,没读过的赶紧补上![415]

  • 喜欢念《心经》的人有大福报[430]

  • 般若波罗蜜多心经·英文版[688]

  • 浅谈《心经》的心理治疗[634]

  • 你真的读懂《心经》了吗?听听大师怎么说[1215]

  • 读懂《心经》,你会明白人生再难也有希望[868]

  • 《心经与智慧人生》(下)[766]

  • 《心经与智慧人生》(中)[704]

  • 《心经与智慧人生》(上)[1070]

  • 怎样才算是读懂心经?——《心经》与生活禅[773]

  • 《心经》揭示了怎样的般若智慧?[936]

  • 读懂《心经》,受用一生![1046]

  • 吴言生讲授《心经》智慧:五蕴皆空,六六六顺,七识无我,八识归元[1602]

  • 心经开示录 [清定上师][793]

  • 心经直说 [憨山大师][957]

  • 《心经》有真正的妙智慧,能破三种障碍[1011]

  • 《心经》上的“观”字,很多人都没读懂![910]

  •  
    设为首页 | 加入收藏 | 联系站长 | 友情链接 | 版权申明 | 管理登录 | 
    版权所有 Copyright© 2005 佛学研究        站长:wuys
    Powered by:Great Tang Hua Wei & XaWebs.com 2.0(2006)