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    The Unifying of Rdzogs Pa Chen Po and Ch'an
     
    [ 作者: A. W. Barber   来自:期刊原文   已阅:10586   时间:2007-1-17   录入:ningguannan


    ·期刊原文

    The Unifying of Rdzogs Pa Chen Po and Ch'an

    Chung-Hwa Buddhist Journal
    By A. W. Barber
    Vol.3, 04.1990
    PP.301-317




     
                               P.301
     
    Summary
     
       The traditional  accounts of the early history of Tibetan
    Buddhism  are  far  from  unbiased.   They  do  not  portray
    accurately  the history  of Buddhism  as it first moved into
    that  country.  The  political/social  context  was far more
    complex than traditional accounts would lead one to believe.
       Ch'an  Buddhism  was introduced  into Tibet in three main
    currents.  These are: from Kim Ho-shang's teachings, from Wu
    Chu's teachings and from Mo ho yen's teachings.  The various
    forms of Ch'an gained  wide popularity.  So much so that the
    first  Tibetan  born  abbot  of the most important  monastic
    center, bSam yas, was a Ch'an  master.  At the same time the
    rDzogs pa Chen po teachings from India were being introduced
    by  Vimalamitra   and  Vairocana.   Doctrinally   there  are
    considerable similarities between these two teachings.  The
    teachings of Vimalamitra  became very popular in the central
    district of Tibet. The teachings of Vairocana became popular
    in the areas of Tibet near the Chinese border.
       The rNyingma  master Rong Zom lived at the time of Atisa.
    Two generations before him the Ch'an teachings that survived
    after the suppression of Ch'an (in Tibet), were unified with
    the  rDzogs  pa Chen  po teachings  of Vairocana.  Rong  Zom
    received  the  entire  teachings  of  both  Vimalamitra  and
    Vairocana.  He was the first person to do so. After the time
    of these  two  masters.  Because  the Ch'an  teachings  were
    already preserved  in the system of Vairocana, with Rong Zom
    the whole  of the rDzogs  pa Chen po and Tibetan  Ch'an were
    united.
       This information is well documented in  early  rDzogs  pa
    Chen po texts and histories.  Further  references  are to be
    found  in The Blue  Annals.  as well  as material  from  Tun
    Huang.
     
                               P.302
     
    THE UNIFYING OF RDZOGS PA CHEN PO AND CH'AN
     
       In the past few years, there has been some attention paid
    to the topic of rDzogs  pa Chen po and its connections  with
    Ch'an.(1) Although the material that has been published  has
    exhibited  excellent  scholarship,  it  has  not  been  very
    extensive.  There remains considerable work to be undertaken
    in developing this area of research.
       In the  following  paper, I hope  to build  on  my  other
    published  papers  on this topic and add to our knowedge  in
    two ways.(2) First, I would  like  to show how the important
    figure  of Rong  Zom played  a key role in bringing  the two
    traditions  together.  Second, 1 would also like to show how
    Ch'an  thought  was  preserved  and  incorporated  into  the
    structure  of  Tibetan Buddhism with its strong Indian based
    gradualistic  path approach.  It will be shown that Rong Zom
    was indeed instrumental  in the uniting  of these traditions
    and that  Ch'an, although  having  to go underground  for  a
    period, emerged  at  the  very  pennicle  of one  school  of
    Tibetan Buddhism.
     
    THE EARLY SPIRITUAL ARENA IN TIBET
     
       As is well known, Buddhism  first started filtering  into
    Tibet  at the time of Srong  Sum Gam po who married  both  a
    Chinese princess and a Nepalese princess.  As legend has it,
    both brought with them a statue of the Buddha. These statues
    were  duely  enshrined  and  preceeded  to become  important
    religious treasures of lasting inspiration.
       Previous  to  this  event, there  were  undoubtedly  some
    contact  between  central  Tibet and Buddhism.  Legend holds
    that  a copy of the Karandavyuha  Sutra  fell from  the sky.
    While the validity  this story may have is undetermined, yet
    it was  used  repeatedly  to show  the close  connection  of
    Tibetan    rulers   with   Buddhism    and   notably    with
    Avaiokitesvara.  There  is also  a report  of some Khotanese
    monks having  gone to Tibet.  It seems reasonable  to assume
    that wondering  monks and yogis were not altogether  unknown
    on Tibetan soil. Yet, at best these minor incidents, perhaps
    only set the stage for the  more  official   introduction of
    Buddhism in  the  late  8th and  9th century  A.D.  However,
     
                               P.303
     
    it is  logical  these  minor  incidents  developed among the
    population   and,  more   importantly, among   the   various
    chieftains, a base for Buddhism  to grow.  Although  Tibetan
    history  prefers  to portray  the great  kings  of Tibet  as
    enlightened  Bodhisattvas, who intrinsically  knew the value
    of Buddhism  and were thus willing  to risk all in order  to
    establish  it in Tibet, the reality  of such a portrayal  is
    very different.
       The Kings  of Tibet most likely  saw in Buddhism  several
    advantages.  The first and formost  was probably  the belief
    that by adopting  it, the important  religious  base  of the
    "Kings  right to rule," could be completely  under the kings
    control.  Politically, this had further ramifications.  Some
    of the more remote chieftains living in areas that boardered
    Buddhist  countries  were already coming under the influence
    of Buddhism. This allowed the kings in central Tibet to have
    some critical alliances  in  their continuing problems  with
    neighboring regions such as Zhan Zhung. Also, it allowed for
    better relationships with the surrounding Buddhist countries
    such as China  and Nepal.  Mention  must be made of the fact
    that some Tibetans considered that Buddhist magic was by far
    more powerful than their native shamanistic magic.  Finally,
    the primitive  Tibetans  could  not but be impressed  by the
    sophistication  of thought, religious  practices, and  other
    cultural   dimensions,  such  as  education,  that  Buddhism
    brought with it. Thus,it was to the kings every advantage to
    foster Buddhism  and promote its wide diffusial.  The larger
    the base of Buddhism in the country, the more secure was the
    kings base of power.
       Given this  environment,  wondering monks were permitted,
    religious  teachers were invited and the financing of Dharma
    projects  of various  sorts  were undertaken.  We know  from
    Chinese  sources  that China was very much aware of Tibetans
    for many years before the 8th century A.D.  These encounters
    were probably beneficial and some were reportedly military in
    nature. The Tibetan have no source of comparable information.
    Tibetans seem to have had only vague information about India
    proper. There had been some contact with parts of India that
    bordered Tibet such as Kashmire.(3)   Further, it is safe to
    assume that Tibet had some knowledge of what is now Nepal.(4)
    but accurate information of the Gangatic Plane and the heart-
    land of Buddhism seems to have been lacking.   Therefore, it
    was not at all suprising to find that
     
     
                               P.304
     
     
    the Tibetans first looked to China, including Khotan and Tun
    Huang, for its importation of Buddhism.(5)
        The earliest translations made, the earliest training in
    Buddhism undertaken  by Tibetans, and the largest contingent
    of  masters  all  were  Chinese  in  origin.   Of  important
    consideration was the Tibetan occupation of Tun Huang in 780
    A.D.  At this famous site, many manuscripts  were translated
    from the Chinese originals into Tibetan. Thanks to the large
    find of such  preserved  material  made in the beginning  of
    this century, we now have become aware of these manuscripts.
    However, a detailed study of the translation system used for
    translating  Chinese  into Tibetan  has not come to light so
    far.  Be this as it may, the available information indicates
    that at the earliest stages, the Tibetans were spending  far
    more time in trying  to understand  and to transmit  Chinese
    Buddhism  to  their  native  soil,  than  they  were  Indian
    Buddhism per se. This of course would change.
        As is now well known, Ch'an  monks  and Ch'an  teachings
    gained  popularity  in  Tibet  early  in their  adaption  of
    Buddhism.  Of course, the various  states of Tibet that were
    closest  to China  and Central  Asia (where  Ch'an  had also
    become popular) were the most influenced, such as Kham.  But
    this popularity had affected the whole of the Tibetan world.
    In China  at this  time, Ch'an  was coming  into its own and
    many  different  schools  were  developing.  However, at Tun
    Huang  various  Ch'an  schools   were  represented.(6)  This
    assortment  of Ch'an teachings allowed for some unique mixes
    of schools  as is represented  by Mo Ho Yen 和尚摩诃衍  (Tb.
    Hwa shang Mahayana).  Mo Ho Yen seems  to have blended  some
    teachings of the Northern school of Ch'an with the Pao T'ang
    school.  It was this  hybrid  form  of Ch'an  that was being
    propagated in Tibet.(7)
       There were three transmission lines of Ch'an into Tibet.
    These  lines  of  transmission  were  supported  by  several
    powerful families.
       The first line of transmission was from I chou  益州 -
    成都 and came  from  the master  Kim (Chin  ho shang) 金和尚
    This lineage was brought  to Tibet by the son of  a  Chinese
    commissioner  named   Sang  Shi  in  Tibetan   sources.  The
    second line of transmission was probably from master  Wu Chu
    无住 of the Pao  T'ang  school.  This lineage was brought to
    Tibet by the Tibetan  minister  Ye shes dbang po.  The third
    was introduced  by the famous master Mo ho yen, who traveled
    to  Tibet  from  his  residency  at Tun Huang.(8)
     
                               P.305
     
       The first of the above mentioned transmissions took place
    in circa  750 A.D.  Upon Sang Shi's  return  from China to a
    politically  unstable  situation, the texts were hidden  for
    two years before  he could translate  them.  Although  these
    teachings  were to be quickly superseded  by the second line
    of transmission, Sang shi's  teachings  were of considerable
    importance.  Also  of importance  is the fact that  Sang shi
    became abbot of bSam Yas Monastery.  This monastery  was the
    central stage for the introduction of Buddhism into Tibet.
       The line of teachings  stemming  from  Wu Chu took on far
    greater importance than that introduced by Sang Shi.  First,
    Wu chu or his  students  claimed  that  he had received  the
    transmission  from  master  Kim.  Although  this  is  highly
    questionable, in the Tibetan  eyes, this must have added  to
    his prestige. Second, the radical teachings of the Pao T'ang
    school in someways parallels the more radical approach taken
    in the Mahasiddha's  teachings  which were being  introduced
    from India.(9)
       The  third  line  of  transmission   developed   as  much
    influence  as that of the Pao T'ang line, if not more.  This
    was introduced to Tibet by Mo ho yen of Tun Huang.  However,
    the actual  historical  events  of his life as  well as  the
    teachings  he passed  on, are still a subject  of study.(10)
    According to legend, Mo ho yen was the Chinese representative
    at  the  debate  of  Lhasa.(11) According  to  late  Tibetan
    sources, his teachings  seem  to be a mixture  of both  late
    Northern Ch'an and the Pao T'ang Ch'an. However, as noted by
    other  scholars, the  historicity  of the  Lhasa  debate  is
    highly  questionable.(12) Also,  more  study  is  needed  to
    determine  first, if Mo ho yen  was influenced  by Pao T'ang
    teachings  or  other  Ch'an  schools  besides  the  Northern
    school.  Second, if the Tibetans had inadvertently  assigned
    teachings  to Mo ho yen that were not representative  of his
    position.  Third, to what extent was Mo ho yen influenced by
    the other Ch'an teachings  available at Tun Huang.  Finally,
    if  Mo ho yen  was  actually  influenced  by the  Mahasiddha
    teachings.(13)
       Slightly after the first introduction of Ch'an in Tibet,
    there  was  the introduction  of Indian  forms  of Buddhism.
    Although  we read of a natural  encounter  between  Tibetans
    interested  in Buddhism  and Buddhist  teachers at Tun Huang
    and  of wondering  Ch'an  monks, the introduction  of Indian
    Buddhism seems to have been totally under the control and by
    invitation  only  of  the  ruling  house.  However, it seems
    extremely
     
                               P.306
     
    unlikely  that  this  was  the case  and I would assume that
    wondering Indian monks and yogis were not completely unknown
    in Tibet.  However, Tibetan  historians  have left us little
    information  of the  earliest  contacts  between  Tibet  and
    Indian Buddhism except the above picture.
       The  four  people  who  are  of most  important  for  the
    introduction  of Indian Buddhism on Tibetan soil are: Sangha
    Raksita, Padmasambhava, Vairocana  and  Vimalamitra.  Sangha
    Raksita  is only  remembered  for  his  introduction  of the
    monastic  tradition  (vinaya  rules  & ordination).  He  was
    probably  involved  in more activities  than just that.  The
    famous  Padmasambhava  has  had  his  name  associated  with
    absolutely everything in Tibetan Buddhism. This is more myth
    than  fact.  Vairocana, a Tibetan  monk, and Vimalamitra(14)
    both studied under the same master in India.
       Because the connection between Ch'an and Tibetan Buddhism
    is found  in the  rDzogs  pa Chen  po tradition, only  those
    mentioned  above  who  had  a  solid  connection  with  this
    tradition  will be discussed.  That would  be Vairocana  and
    Vimalamitra.  Padmasambhava is said to have had a major role
    in the introduction  of this  tradition  into Tibet  but, as
    noted  by other scholars, this is probably  a myth.(15) From
    my own research, I have found  no solid evidence  to support
    Padmasambhava   being   claimed   as  one  of  the   initial
    transmitters.
       Vimalamitra was an Indian who lived circa 800  A.D.   His
    main  teacher  was Sri  Simha.  From  him  he had learned  a
    tradition  known as Ati-yoga  or Mahasandhi  (Tb.  rDzogs pa
    Chen po).  He later transmitted  this tradition to Tibet and
    perhaps  China.(16) Vairocana  was one of the first Tibetans
    to become  a monk.  He lived at the same time as Vimalamitra
    and also studied with Sri Simha.  He studied  with Sri Simha
    in India at Dhyanakantaka, located on the Krishna river.(17)
    He later brought the tradition of Ati-yoga back to Tibet and
    also some of the outlining areas, were  Tibet meets  Central
    Asia/China.   Although it is reported that   Vairocana  only
    transmitted  a portion of the tradition and that Vimalamitra
    was responsible  for the section left out, upon scrutiny  of
    the resources, it has been determined  that Vairocana taught
    the entire tradition.(18)
       The  Ati-yoga   is  more  concerned   with   meditational
    techniques  than  philosophy.  In  its  philosophy, it  has
    combined components of both
     
                               P.307
     
    Yogacara and Madhyamaka.One often finds lengthy  discussions
    of the  eight consciousness (Sk.vijnana), Buddha-nature (Sk.
    tathagatagarbha) and  other  such  topics.  It  is also  not
    unocmmon  to find  typically, that the  Madhyamaka positions
    are expanded and claimed to be the highest view. This hybrid
    of Yogacara-Madhyamaka  was the philosophical vogue in India
    during this same time period.(19) Every possible combination
    of  the  various  sub-branches  of  the  Yogacara  with  the
    sub-branches  of  the  Madhyamaka  was  developed.  Although
    claimed  otherwise, present  day Tibetan  Buddhism  is still
    strongly influenced  by these hybrids  in one way or another.
    Further, unlike  most of  the  other traditions in India the
    Ati-yoga    accepted  the  idea  of  sudden   enlightenment.
    Meditationally  it put  forth the idea of seeing the mind in
    its  nakedness.  Finally, it  promoted  a  non  conventional
    approach to life as a Buddhist.
       One  can  see  from  the  above  paragraph  that there is
    considerable  common ground between the  Ati-yoga and Ch'an.
    Ch'an also had developed a hybrid of Yogacara and Madhyamaka.
    This is based on the Lankavatara Sutra and the Diamond Sutra
    (Sk. Vajracchedaka). Although at present this hybrid appears
    to have formed solely due to the internal dynamics of Chinese
    Buddhism, particularly  in Ch'an,it seems  that  no research
    has been  undertaken  to investigate  the connection  of the
    hybrid movements  in India and China where they occurred  at
    about  the same time.  Further, Ch'an  also  teaches  sudden
    enlightenment,   non-conventionality   and   original   face
    (roughly equalivent to naked mind).
       In addition to the hybrid  philosophical position held by
    the Ati-yoga  tradition,  its metaphysical base is firmly in
    the Tantras.  Thus, explanations  of meditational mechanics,
    modus  operandi, metaphors  and the such are all drawn  from
    tantric  literature.  In contrast  to this, Ch'an  is firmly
    based in the Sutras.
       Both Vimalamitra  and Vairocana transmitted the teachings
    of Sri Simha in Tibet and set up seperate lineages. However,
    there must have been some crossing over of the two lines even
    during their life time,  as they stem from the same cycle of
    teachings and the same teacher. If we follow Tibetan history,
    these two lines seem to have remainded separate until the time
    of Rong Zom.
       In summary then, the picture of Buddhism  in Tibet at the
    time of Rong  Zom was far more  complex  than later  Tibetan
    sources would have
     
                               P.308
     
    us  believe.   Ch'an  in  three  different  forms  had  been
    introduced and had gained considerable  popularity.  This is
    examplified  by the fact that a number  of Ch'an works  were
    translated  into  Tibetan, one  of its  representatives  was
    selected  as abbot of the most famous monastery  in Tibet at
    the  time  and  that  the  various  representatives  (either
    Chinese  or Tibetan)of Ch'an  had gained  royal  support  in
    Tibet. The rDzogs pa chen po (or Ati-yoga) of the Mahasiddha
    Sri Simha, which has considerable  elements  in common  with
    Ch'an had also been introduced.
       By the time of Rong Zom, these sudden teachings  of Ch'an
    and rDzogs pa Chen po were receiving  less emphasis  and the
    gradualistic  approach of Indian  Buddhism was beginning  to
    make itself felt.
     
    HAGIOGRAPHY OF RONG ZOM
     
       The most important  thing  to note  here is that Rong Zom
    brought  together  within  himself  both  lines  of Ati-yoga
    originating  from Vimalamitra  and Vairocana.  Vairocana was
    instrumental  in the establishing  of these teachings in the
    Kham area.  Though he had worked in central  Tibet, his line
    of transmission  was  much  stronger  in Kham.  Vimalamitra,
    however, had spent his time mostly teaching in central Tibet
    and therefore, his line was stronger  there.  That these two
    lines  of  Ati-yoga  would  come  together  is  not  at  all
    suprising.  Once Buddhism had grown to be national in Tibet,
    various  small  groups  were  no longer  isolated  from  one
    another.   Whatever  traditions   and  practices  they  were
    following could be easily known by others.  This would allow
    for someone like Rong Zom to collect various traditions.
       What  is  of  considerable  interest  to  us  here is the
    connection of the Ch'an teachings with the rDzogs pa chen po
    lineage.
     
    RONG ZOM
     
       Rong Zom was the son of Rong ban Rin chen Tshul khrims.He
    was famous as a great Tibetan Pandita. He was born at Khungs
    rong on the border of Lower gTsang.  Shortly  before  this a
    scholar  called  Acarya Smritijnanakirti  came to Khams, and
    translated several tantras.
     
                               P.309
     
    After his death, he was reborn as Rong Zom. Others say, that
    a pandita  named  Acarya  Phra la Ring mo came to Khams.  He
    also translated  a commentary  on the gSang sning rGyud (sk.
    Guhya garbha Tantra),he further  taught  this tantra.  After
    his death, he was reborn  as Rong Zom.  When lord Atisa  had
    met Rong Zom he said: "This  Lord is the incarnation  of the
    Indian Acarya Krisnapada  the Great.  How shall I be able to
    discuss the Doctrine with him."
       Rong  Zom studied  the sutras  at the age of seven.  From
    thirteen  onwards,  he  became  a  great  scholar,  who  had
    completed   his  studies   and  became  known  as  the  "one
    unobscured  in all branches of knowledge."  Endowed with the
    faculty  of prescience, knowing the proper time and measures
    (to be adopted) in the disciplining  of living  beings, with
    the view of establishing  in Bliss in this and future  lives
    ordinary  living beings, and those who had entered religion,
    he  produced  well-written   treatises.   All  the  treatises
    composed  by him did not contradict  scriptures, reason  and
    the explanations given to him by his teacher. They were free
    from blemishes  in words and meaning, and they were known to
    be unrefutable  by other  famous  scholars.  In addition, he
    also  was  a  great  translator.   He  translated  the:  Sri
    Vajramahabhairava          nama          Tantra,         the
    Sarvatathagatakayavakcittakrsnayamari  nama Tantra, the 'Jam
    dpal sNgags don, the Abhidhana uttaratantra and other texts.
    His commentaries  and translations  covered the entire range
    of Buddhist  learning.  Of considerable  importance  was his
    work on the rDzogs  pa Chen po entitled: rDzogs pa Chen po'i
    lTa sgom Man ngag...  Precepts  on the Theory and Meditative
    Practice of the Great Achievement.
       During  this period  there took place a religious  debate
    attended by all of the scholars  from the four districts  of
    Tibet. They intended to debate with him, holding the opinion
    that it was improper  for persons  born in Tibet  to compose
    treatises. After they had gone over one of his treatises and
    after debating  the subject  matter  with him, they all felt
    amazed, and each of them honoured  him and then listened  to
    his exposition of the Doctrine.
       He  heard  the  secret  precepts   of  the  Acarya  Padma
    (sambhava) transmitted through the Spiritual lineage of sNam
    mKha rDo rje bDud Joms and mKhar  chen dPal gyi dBang  phyug
    and so forth till Rong ban Rin chen Tshul  khrims.  Further,
    the  (Lineage)  which  originated  with  Vairocana (was also
    received).   This   is   one  of  the  Lineages of the "Mind
     
                               P.310
     
    Class  (Sems  sde)"(of the rDzogs  chen teachings).  At 1Dan
    gLong thang sGron ma there appeared an ascetic named A ro Ye
    shes 'Byung gnas, who possessed  the secret precepts  of the
    seventh  link in the chain of the Indian Lineage, as well as
    those  of the seventh  link  of the Chinese  lineage  of Hwa
    shang (=ho shang).  He preached  the system  to Cog ro Zangs
    dKar mDzod khur and to Ta zi Bon ston.  These two taught  it
    to Rong Zom.  This (Lineage) is called the "(Lineage) of the
    Great  Achievement  (rDzogs  chen)  according  to the  Khams
    method."  Again, Vimala (mitra) taught the Doctrine to Myang
    Ting dzin bZang po as well as bestowed  the secret  precepts
    on rMa Rin chen  mChog  and gNyags  Jnanakumara.  These  two
    transmitted them gradually to Rong Zom.
       Though  the dates  of birth and death  of this great  man
    are, as stated  above, not  to  be found, it  is  said  that
    Atisa, on  his  arrival  to  Tibet, met  him.  Therefore, he
    should be regarded  as being almost a contemporary  of (him)
    and 'Gos Lo tsa ba.(20)
       The important  point  to note in the above  are that Rong
    Zom received  a hybrid form of the lineage of rDzogs pa chen
    po that originated  with Vairocana as well as the lineage of
    rDzogs  pa chen  po that originated  with  Vimalamitra.  The
    lineage originating with Vimalamitra  has been traditionally
    been  associated  with the two higher  classes  of teachings
    found  in rDzogs  pa chen po;  i.e., the great  expanse  and
    instruction   classes.   the  teachings  of  Vairocana   are
    traditionally  held to be only the mind class.  Although one
    will, from  a proper  historical  research, find  that  both
    teachers  actually taught all three classes of the rDzogs pa
    chen po, the traditionally  ascribed affiliation  should not
    be overlooked  in viewing  the  development  of the line  of
    teaching.
       Of considerable  concern  to our  investigation  are  the
    following  lines taking  from the hagiography: "Further, the
    (lineage)which originate with Vairocana (was also received).
    This  is  one  of the  lineages  of the  "Mind  class  (sems
    sde)"(of the rDzogs  pa chen  po teachings).  At lDan  gLong
    thang sGron ma there appeared  an ascetic named A ro Ye shes
    'Byung  gnas, who  Rossessed  the  secret  precepts  of  the
    seventh  link in the chain of the Indian Lineage, as well as
    those  of the seventh  link  of the Chinese  lineage  of Hwa
    shang (=ho shang).  He preached  the system  to Cog ro zangs
    dKar mDzod khur and to Ta zi Bon ston.  These two taught  it
    to Rong Zom.".
     
                                P.311
     
       Here we see that the lineage  of the "Mind class"  or the
    rDzogs pa chen po that was taught in Kham by Variocana  (the
    Indian lineage) had been united  with a form originating  in
    China with its teacher identified as Hwa shang.  Although it
    is tempting  to associate  this Hwa Shang with the famous Mo
    ho yen Hwa Shang  no evidence  has  come  to light  for this
    direct identification. Mo Ho yen was a teacher of Ch'an from
    Tun  Huang.   These  two  lines  of  teaching  were  already
    associated  with  each  other  when  Rong  Zom received  the
    teachings.  Thus showing  that Ch'an  and rDzogs  pa chen po
    were united only two generations  before Rong Zom.  However,
    if we accept the traditional  view that Vairocana system was
    only  of the Mind class, then, Ch'an  had only  united  with
    this level.  It was not until Rong Zom, himself, had brought
    the  teachings   of  Vimalamitra   together  with  the  Kham
    teachings, that the whole  of rDzogs  pa chen  po was united
    and this would included the Ch'an teachings.
     
                               P.312
     
                      DOCTRINE OF RDZOGS PA CHEN PO
     
       As with most of the later forms of Mahayana  Buddhism the
    rDzogs pa chen po teachings  represent  a form  of Yogacara-
    Madyamaka  in their doctrinal  position.  The Yogacara forms
    the  working   models  for  understanding   the  mind.   The
    Madhyamaka  is used in the formation of statements of truth.
    In addition  to this, a developed  theory of Tathagatagarbha
    emerged as the base for the whole of the doctrinal positions
    taken.
       The  rNyingma  school, wherein  the  rDzogs  pa  chen  po
    teaching   is   found,  in  general,  has   several   unique
    philosophical  features.  In the  area  of Yogacara, it puts
    forth  a theory  of  9 consciousnesses.  It  accepts  the  6
    consciousnesses  of mind and 5 senses  as well as the manas.
    The Alayavijnana  is divided  into two parts.  The first  is
    called the Alayavijnana  and represents the storing capacity
    for the karmic  seeds.  The second, is termed  the Alaya and
    represents the "all ground" which allows the functioning  of
    the whole process beginning  with the Alayavijnana.  Here we
    can  perhaps  understand  the  Alaya  as the unaware  aspect
    (ignorant) of the Tathagatagarbha.
       There  is also a distinction made between Tathagatagarbha
    and Sugatagarbha.  The  first  is the phenomena possessed by
    ordinary unenlightened individuals and the second is the same
    phenomena but it is possessed by enlightened individuals.  A
    clearly   distinction   of  these   two   is  important   in
    understanding  statements  made throughout  the whole of the
    rDzogs pa chen po doctrine.
       The  ultimate  truth  is understood  in usual  Madhyamaka
    terms.  The fact that only two possibilities  are permitted,
    i.e., samsara  and  enlightenment, directly  relate  to  the
    conventional  and ultimate  truth.  Nirvana almost always is
    used in a negative sense as the small rest taken by Hinayana
    followers and not seen as a full and complete enlightenment.
    Seeing that only two possibilities  exist, one is either  in
    samsara  or one is not.  This view allows for no possibility
    of a real  path  to exist.  Enlightenment  is seen as taking
    place  suddenly.  Liberation  of  mind  and  forms  are  all
    natural. Spontanious activity is the correct and appropriate
    response to any situation.  When the mind is free, then, all
    things are
     
                               P.313
     
    of  themselves free, so  all is  naturally and spontaniously
    self-liberated.  The initial by-product  of the meditational
    process is a state of no-thought.  Later development  allows
    one to be in a state of no-thought of no-thought.  The texts
    continually  use  the  terms  relating  to no-thought;  e.g.
    motionless, no-thought, no  perception, etc.  as  indicating
    only  the  by-product  of the  process  of  meditation.  The
    emphasis is given to the idea of "Rig pa." Rig pa means pure
    pristine  awareness.  This  pure  awareness  can  be a state
    wherein  one  does not move from the non-dual.  The word can
    also be used as a verb "to be purely  aware"  when one is in
    the state  of no-thought  of no-thought, this state  is also
    without movement from the non-dual.
     
                               P.314
     
    STRUCTURE OF RDZOGS PA CHEN PO
     
       According  to Long  chen  pa,the  rDzogs  pa chen  po  is
    divided into two main lines. The first is the rDzogs pa chen
    po in relation with other paths and the Great Explanation.
       The rNyingma schools divides the whole of Buddhism as
    follows:
                                            Path
    lowest
                        1. sravaka
                        2. pratiyekabuddha
                        3. bodhisattva (= mahayan sutra teachings)
                        4. kriya tantra
                        5. carya tantra
                        6. yoga  tantra
                        7. mahayoga tantra
                        8. anuyoga tantra
                        9. atiyoga tantra (=rDzogs pa chen po)
     
    highest
       rDzogs pa chen po in relations with other paths, means to
    have the general view as explained in rDzogs pa chen po texts,
    while practicing any of the paths 1 through 8. An individual
    does not have to begin with the first. Beginning practice is
    according  to  the  capacities   of  each  individual.   The
    important  point is to maintain  the rDzogs  pa chen po view
    while doing any practice.  The basis of this view is that we
    are all already  Buddhas.  We engage in the activity  of any
    path because that is the activity of a Buddha.  For example,
    while Sakyamuni fully realized the rDzogs pa chen po view he
    followed  the  Hinayana  systems  in  order  to  teach.   He
    practiced  the tantras in order to worship other buddhas  as
    well  as  to  teach.  Therefore.  it  is important  to learn
    something  of the other  paths  to be able to engage  in the
    activity of Buddhas.
         The Great Explanation relates to the three divisions of
    the  rDzogs pa chen po.   These are the Mind class the Great
    Expanse  class  and the Instructions  class.  The Mind class
    teaches the seeing the mind in its
     
     
                               P.315
     
    nakedness.  The Great Expanse class teaches the openness  of
    being(=experiential  aspect  of  sunyata).  The  Instruction
    class  teaches  the  techniques  for  stablizing  and  total
    incorporation   of  the  overall  view  and  experiences  of
    enlightenment.
       There are of course many fine points that are not presented
    here   in  our  brief   outline.   Basically,  the   various
    meditations are aimed at producing a state of no-thought and
    later   no-thought   of  no-thought.   There  are  visionary
    techniques  used which  make for a close contact  with other
    tantra classes.  The metaphors  used are usually  drawn from
    the tantras.  However, even  the visionary  meditations  are
    considerably  simplified when compared with other classes of
    tantras.  The highest  levels  of practice  are that  of the
    direct viewing of the non-dual state.
       Rong  Zom had  inherited, from  the teachings  of Kham, a
    system of rDzogs pa chen po that had already mixed the Ch'an
    of China with the Indian teachings  on sudden enlightenment.
    As noted these teachings were introduced by Vairocana. Also,
    as noted, Ch'an  was associated  with the mind class  of the
    rDzogs  pa chen po.  When Rong  Zom had brought  these  Kham
    teachings  together with the teachings of Vimalamitra, Ch'an
    maintained its association with the Mind class.
     
    CONCLUSION
     
       We have seen that it was the famous scholar/yogi Rong Zom
    who had brought the teachings  of  Vimalamitra and Vairocana
    together and there by forming  a  comprehensive whole to the
    teaching  of rDzogs pa chen po.  Previous  to this, the Mind
    class  of teachings  had become  associated  with  the Ch'an
    teachings coming from China.
       Seeing that the Ch'an teachings had a very close doctrinal
    affilitation  with the rDzogs  pa chen po, the mixing of the
    two was a natural event. Later Tibetan teachers forgot about
    this connection  and went on to teach  Ch'an  in association
    with other teachings of rDzogs pa chen po.  This association
    was so completely  forgotten  that in later  years, when the
    rNyingma  were accused  of spreading  teachings  similar  to
    Chinese  thought  (a maior religious  crime  in Tibet), they
    would  strongly  deny  such charges.  In defence, they would
    point to the Indian origin of the rDzogs pa chen po.
     
     
                                P.316
     
    NOTES
     1. see a;  Norbu, Namkha.  "rDzogs  Chen & Zen." Zhan Zhung
        Press 1985. b; Broughton, Jeffrey."Early Ch'an   Schools
        in  Tibet"  c;  Gomez,  Luis  O."The  Direct  &  Gradual
        Approach of Zen Master Mahayana..."/  b&c in: Studies of
        Ch'an and Hua Yen Univ. of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, 1983.
        d;  Lancaster  &  Lai.:  Early  Ch'an  in China & Tibet.
        Berkeley Buddhist Stds.  Series 1983. e;  my previous
        publications  are under  the name  of Hanson-Barber.  1.
        "No-Thought in Pao AT'ang Ch'an & Early Ati-yoga" JIABS #2,
        vol.  9.  1986;  The Life & Teachings  of Vairocana  Ann
        Arbor. Microfilm Int. 1985.
     2. For general rDzogs Chen see: Norbu & Lipman.  Primordial
        Experience.  Shambala.  Boston 1987;  Lipman & Peterson.
        You are  the Eyes  of the World.  Navato.  Lotsawa  Pub.
        1986. Guenther, H.V Kindly Bent to Ease Us. Emeryville,
        Dharma Press, 1978; Dowman, K. "The Three Incisive Precepts
        of Garab Dorje." Diamond Sow Pub.  1982;  Hanson-Barber,
        A.W.  "The Two Other Homes of Ati-Yoga in India." JISIBS
        vo1.4;  "The Identification  of dGa' rab rDo rje." JIABS
        #2. vol. 9. 1986.
     3. The first official envoy was Thomi Sambhota  who went to
        study language.
     4. Large tracks  of what is now Nepal were part of Tibet at
        various times.
     5. The  Tibetan  manuscripts  found  at Tun  Huang  are  an
        extensive collection.
     6. We find writings from: northern Ch'an, Pao T'ang Ch'an,
        Southern Ch'an, Ox head Ch'an and more, preserved there.
     7. ibid. Hanson-Barber. "No-Thought in Pao T'ang Ch'an...".
     8. see note l. b & c.
     9. op cit. Hanson-Barber
    10. op cit. Studies in Ch'an & Hua Yen.
    11. Tucci, G. Minor Buddhist Texts I & II. Delhi, 1986.
        Motilal  Banarsidass.  and  Bu  Ton  History  of  Indian
        Buddhism.
    12. Although it is questionable, the symbol of the debate is
        important.  It represents  Tibet's  official  policy  of
        rejecting Chinese influence on a high level. The political
        importance of this is unquestionable.
    13. Master Wu Chu may have had some connection  with Tantra.
        He is quotated  as talking about a "Dharani Gate (pg.13.
        op cit. Studies in Ch'an & Hua Yen). Mo ho yen is
        closely associated with Wu Chu in Tibetan sources. Tucci
        (op cit.) holds that some of the Ati-yoga  masters  were
        on Mo ho yen's side at the debate.
     
                               P.317
     
    14. There were two Vimalamitras. One was a layman and the other
        a monk.  The historical  problems  have not been  sorted
        yet.
    15. see: Dargyay, E.M.  The  Rise  of Esoteric  Buddhism  in
        Tibet Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1976. and Hanson-Barber.
        The Life & Teachings of Vairocana, ibid.
    16. Vimalamitra and other tantric masters are said to have gone
        through  Tibet  and on to Tun  Huang  as well  as Wu Tai
        Shan.  Some rDzogs  Chen texts  were found at Tun Huang.
        see Norbu & Lipman, op cit, pg. 7 & 137 n. 19
    17. see Hanson-Barber op cit. "The Two Other Homes of Ati-yoga..."..
    18. Hanson-Barber, op cit. The Life & Teachings of Vairocana.
    19. Sangharaksita also taught a hybrid form of the two schools.
        Yet he was not associated with the rDzogs Chen.
    20. Ruegg. S. The Blue Annals.
     
                               P.318
     
     
    提要:
        对早期西藏佛教史而言, 西藏本身的传统记载距离不偏不倚的要
    求仍然很远, 因为它们未能正确地描绘出佛教是如何传入这一地区的
    历史。至于那些缘于政治、社会因素而衍生出来的讲法, 其混淆的程
    度较之上述那些传统记载, 则更难令人置信了。
        中国禅法被介绍进西藏者有三派, 它们是: 金和上的禅法、无住
    禅师的禅法和摩诃衍的禅法。自后, 各种不同的中国禅法弘化方式在
    西藏地区广泛流行。这可以从西藏最重要的佛教中心 --bSam yas 寺
    的第一位土生藏族住持是一位中国禅法的大师这一点看出来。  在同
    一时代, 印度的大圆满教义亦通过维摩密多与毘卢
        遮那二人而传入西藏。在教义上, 大圆满跟中国禅法有极多相似
    的地方。维摩密多所弘扬的大圆满教义在西藏中部非常流行, 而毘卢
    遮那所宣化的大圆满教义则流行于中、藏交界的西藏地区。
        Nyingma派的大师Rong Zam是Atisa时代的人。虽然西藏禅宗曾遭
    受过法难, 但在他住世的两代之前, 逃过法难的禅法已渐跟毘卢遮那
    氏所传的大圆满教义融合了。
        到了Rong Zam, 他本人接受了维摩密多与毘卢遮那两人所传的全
    部大圆满教义, 而且是第一个做到兼通两家之学的人。由于毘卢遮那
    所传的教理系统中本来就早已有了中国禅法的成分。  再通过  Rong
    Zam 的融汇贯通, 这两派的大圆满之学便跟中国禅学融合了。
        以上所陈, 其讯息是早期的西藏大圆满文献和各类史书所提供。
    而西藏编年史之一的「青史」和中国敦煌石室中的文献, 则提供进一
    步的资料。
     

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